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2023 Dandelions

Updated: Apr 3

All records verified by A. J. Richards

2nd March - Bicester VC23

Off to an early start with Taraxacum pseudohamatum section Hamata,

Bordered pale, pruinose, wide bracts. These were growing in the centre of Bicester.

21st March - Buckingham VC24

Habt. Roundabout (5 years old)

1. Taraxacum laticordatum

SP6815 3345

Section Undulata

Petioles narrower than undulatum

2. Taraxacum psedohamatum

SP6815 3346

Bordered bracts and orange tips to inner ligules

3. Taraxacum maculatum

SP6815 3346

Taraxacum maculatum with purple petioles, lacerated multidirectional lobes and heavy blotching.

5. Taraxacum intumescens

SP6815 3345

6. Taraxacum coartatum

SP6815 3345

Long narrow deltoid lateral lobes. AJR:T.cordatum is much more elegant.

7. Taraxacum intumescens POSSIBLE

SP6815 3345

Dark edged midrib and that spiked arch to the lateral lobes

AJR:robably intumescens again (early end-lobes) although tending to acutifrons.Not sellandii.

8. Taraxacum longisquameum

SP6815 3345

Dinky little member of the maculata group

9. Taraxacum lepidum

SP6815 3345

Cant place these claw bracts anywhere other than lepidum.

10. Taraxacum hepaticum

SP6815 3346

Rounded subdivisions to the end lobes and distant lateral lobes. AJR:Note petioles all purple.

11. Taraxacum sublongisquameum

SP6818 3346

Bracts broad ruff, very blotched interlobes think group Piceata

23rd March - Burnham VC24

Habt. Urban road / footpath verge Miserable weather

01.Taraxacum aequilobum

SU9258 8095

Even pale/mid green lobes and twisted bracts, pink inner petioles

02. Taraxacum hepaticum

SU9333 8123

Shady pavement edge - this seems quite different to the hepaticum you determined on the 21st so not sure (although that one was well developed and out in the open).Glossy dark leaves, purple unwinged petioles and acute tipped terminal lobes

04. Taraxacum coartatum

SU9336 8126

Broad, quite hairy, contiguous lobes and quite dark green! Purple winged petioles and bracts are not really that broad.

05. Taraxacum aequilobum

SU9336 8126

06. Taraxacum pallidipes

SU9337 8114

Group crodeiflora, flat leaves and pale midribs

07. Taraxacum trilobatum

SU9337 8114

Dark green, dentate and blotched lobes with sheathed petiole bases and narrow bracts

08. Taraxacum laciniosifrons

SU9340 8102

Large plant with teeth on both edges of fat multidirectional lobes

09. Taraxacum obliquilobum

SU9340 8102

Large long deltoid lateral lobes and long straight in-rolled narrow bracts

10. Taraxacum interveniens

SU9340 8102

Dark green, narrow (pale) purple unwinged lobes. Similar to hepaticum. Onion spire terminal lobes

26th March - Brackley VC32

Habt. Urban roadside Cold day 7°C overcast – nothing opened 1. Taraxacum boekmanii SP5914 3739 2. Taraxacum oblongatum SP5914 3739

Short bractswith purple stripe down the centre

3. Taraxacum intumescens SP5914 3739

A fat one with a brown midrib 4. Taraxacum trilobatum SP5841 3624

Getting robust - broad petioles and dark teeth on the interlobes

5. Taraxacum exsertiforme SP5841 3624 No flowers open – we couldn’t see pollen on splitting flower heads.

6. Taraxacum interveniens SP5841 3624 Dark leaves with onion spires

7. Taraxacum exsertiforme SP5841 3624 A little different to the one I had a few days earlier. 8. Taraxacum subxanthostigma SP5841 3624

30th March - Bicester VC23 Kingsmere bypass

01. Taraxacum longisquameum

Grid SP5642 2205

Acute subdivisions to the helmet shaped terminal lobes. Spaced lobes with blotched teeth.

02. Taraxacum sublongisquameum

Grid SP5642 2205

Broad ruff of bracts and slight midrib colour / edging

03. Taraxacum logisquameum

Grid SP5642 2209

Acute tipped terminal lobes. Crisped leaves and long pale bracts

06. Taraxacum hamatum

Grid SP5642 2205

This is section hamata with dark inky tipped buds with erect bracts (no rudimentary)

08. Taraxacum incisum

Grid SP5632 2207

Adjacent plants that don’t seem to have threaded midribs which are purple.

09. Taraxacum dilaceratum

Grid SP5642 2205

There were quite a few of these around. Oblong spreading bracts

10. Taraxacum coartatum

Grid SP5642 2205

11. Taraxacum latens

Grid SP5631 2220

Bright pink petioles and reflexed straight bracts. Also sharp sub-divisions on the terminal lobes

12. Taraxacum cophocentrum

Grid SP5631 2220

Large plant with large rounded terminal lobes. Narrow purple bracts

13. Taraxacum hepaticum

Grid SP5642 2209

Bright pink unwinged / narrow petioles. Unblotched. Bracts slightly reflexed

14. Taraxacum leptodon

Grid SP5639 2210

Similar but less chunky. No wings and pink petioles.

30th March - TenTen Bridge Bicester VC23

01 Taraxacum exacutum

Grid SP5719 2388

Dark leaves, distant lobes with sigmoid shape

Love the shape of the terminal lobes on this. AJR: all petioles coloured and not hairy

02. Taraxacum hepaticum

Grid SP5719 2388

All of the petioles are very purple

03. Taraxacum vastisectum

Grid SP5719 2388

Not found in VC23 before

2nd April - A41 Bicester VC23

Busy road new roundabout

Dark stigmas was due to road pollution rather than biology? Also not much pollen visible – could be rain, wind etc.

02. Taraxacum longisquameum

Grid SP5963 2077

A healthier one. Common along this stretch.

03. Taraxacum sublongisquameum

Grid SP5963 2077

Brownish midrib and lateral smudging

04. Taraxacum hamatiforme

Grid SP5972 2074

This does seem to have asymmetry on the fresh leaves and a rudimentary bract. But some bracts are a +/- bordered.

05. Taraxacum chloroticum

Grid SP5972 2074

Narrow reflexed bracts

06. Taraxacum severum

Grid SP5974 2071

There were a few of these –

Noticeable immediately by their hairiness and dirty dark green colour.

Purple petioles and toothed blotched / edged interlobes. Heterophyllous with long end-lobe sharp subdivision. This was probably the most ‘gross’ example (the first one I came across) and a few more along the road verge.

No pollen – but thats the weather.

07. Taraxacum coartatum

Grid SP5974 2071

Narrowly winged pink petioles and pudgy lateral lobes

08. Taraxacum exacutum

Grid SP5979 2066

Homophyllous. Bracts are narrow. Blotched interlobes.

09. Taraxacum pannulatum

Grid SP5979 2066

This plant was right on the curb so dirty (may be masking true colour)

Has large long spreading recurved bracts no border

12. Taraxacum boekmanii

Grid SP5981 2064

Trying to get some good shots of this common dandy

13. Taraxacum hepaticum

Grid SP5985 2064

Lots growing here in a lush grassy patch. Bracts reflexed. Leaves quite grey-green, standing tall and stems not very purple but don’t know what to call this. Doesn’t seem to have pollen.

Only 2-3 lobes

14. taraxacum pannulatum

Not a great specimen

5th April Bicester VC23

Grassy road verge

01. Taraxacum acutifidum (nigridentans was close but no smudged inner ligules)

Grid SP5717 2389

Small homophyllous triangular subdivided terminal lobes. Dark green leaves. I’m not familiar with nigridentans.

AJR: is either acutifidum or nigridentatum and in the end I have gone for acutifidum because I can't see dark smudges on ligules. A difficult one. It is v crisped and has dark interlobes.

O2. Taraxacum pallescens

Grid SP5717 2388

Was originally thinking Piceata – but no edging to midrib. Gp Alata with obtuse bracts and long broad petiole wings. 4-6 lateral lobes

03. Taraxacum ekmanii

Grid SP5716 2388

No red apices to ligule tips and lateral lobes a little sharp. Bracts don’t look that long too

04 Taraxacum longisquameum

Grid SP5717 2394

This has perfect spreading recurved long narrow pale bracts, blotched interlobes. Petioles are not all purple. A really splendid plant.

05. Taraxacum degelii

Grid SP5716 2395

Very distinctive - bordered curled bracts section Erythrosperma

AJR: is a real surprise and goes to show that with dandelions anything might turn up, and that they can be v plastic. It is an Erythrosperm, grown large in good soil as can happen.

Taraxacum degelii
Taraxacum degelii

7th April Burnham VC24 and Arncott VC 23

2 from my village the rest from Bucks VC24 Road verge (A4) Some Erythrosperma are growing near my house! 01. Taraxacum fulvum Grass verge Arncott VC23 Oxon

SP6116 1791 NO pollen – narrow slightly bordered spreading recurved bracts. 3-5 lateral lobes. I’ve put this in a glass of water to get the achenes. Lucky to find this morning – the grass was cut later. I think there are more nearby in a safe area.

O2. Taraxacum oxoniense SP6118 1770 Ovate appressed lobes, purple petioles, no pollen

O3. Taraxacum exacutum

SU9253 8108 Road verge – Burnham Bucks Long extended terminal lobe, blotched interlobes

O4. Taraxacum rhamphoides

SU9252 8108

Group Pannulata. Forward pointing lateral lobes and bordered bracts

O5. Taraxacum tumentilobum

SU9256 8114

Group Piceata. Spaced patent lobes

O6. Taraxacum pulchrifolium

SU9254 8117

Unwinged purple petioles large spreading semi-erect bracts, forward upward pointing lateral lobes Acuminate terminal lobes. I think they mowed this area about a month ago but didn’t make too much impact

O7. Taraxacum leptodon

SU9279 8106

Pale green ascending leaves. Bright pink midribs and unwinged petioles, short bordered bracts

End lobes too pointed for sinuatum. Superficially like hepaticum but a quite different colour.

O8. Taraxacum intumescens

SU9279 8106

Ligule stripes are quite dark. Spaced patent lobes

O9. Taraxacum sublaeticolor

SU9297 8102

Violet bracts even in bud, sigmoid recurved. Acute lateral lobes. Not Piceata and not cucullate.

10. Taraxacum pulchrifolium

SU9294 8100

A more robust example of 06. I’ve not seen this species before and seems to be common here.

8th April - Walk with the Chiltern Botanical Group, Village of Speen VC24

O1. Taraxacum subhamatum

SU8904 9980

We started with an introduction to the sections and Andy MvVeigh brought a great selection in pots! (macrolobum, amarellum, inane, pietii-oosterveldii, tortilobum … ) He didn’t have a Hamata so we plucked one from where we were standing as an example. Orange tips to ligule teeth and unbordered bracts.

O2. Taraxacum undulatum

SU8408 9978

Broad recurved lobes, broad petioles and waxy curled leaves. Thin looking bracts so I think we keyed laticordatum at the time

O3. Taraxacum lunare?

SU8406 9975

We thought this had wings and narrow bracts so hit a dead end keying. Probably group Croceiflora - lunare

O4. Taraxacum oellgaardii?

SU8414 9966

This one threw me – Unblotched flat leaves with short (9-10mm) spreading sub-erect recurved slightly bordered bracts, pollen and dark tips to the inner ligules! Dark stigmas and a deep red midrib. Hairy scape and midribs. (I collected the specimen)

O5. Taraxacum pallidipes

SU8414 996

Gp Croceiflora. Narrow bracts - long broad terminal leaf lobes

O6. Taraxacum dudmanianum

SU8399 9973

We went for dudmanianum due to rounded acuminate terminal lobes, clawed bracts and broad recurved(very noticeable) side lobes.

O9. Taraxacum cophocentrum

SU8414 9919

A runt cophocentrum because of the longer terminal lobe and narrow bracts. It was on the side of a footpath – so compacted ground.

10. Taraxacum spiculatum

SU8413 9942

Was going down the incisum road but then realised the midribs were strongly purple/green threaded! and some bracts do appear to be bordered. Ligules striped brown but tips on inner florets NOT tipped dark. There are 2 adjacent plants photographed.

11. Taraxacum pannucium

SU8413 9943

Pale green, unblotched. Long extenuate terminal lobes. Bracts are quite narrow?

12. Taraxacum trilobatum? - aberrant (2n=48)

SP7059 0695

VC23 Thame Garage

Broad petioles, sheathed and crisped dark toothed interlobes

13. Taraxacum macranthoides

SP7059 0695

VC23 Thame Garage

Gp Pannulata - Pollen plentiful – large capitula and bracts. 'Classic'

14 Taraxacum proximum

SP6119 1766

VC23 Arncott

Back in my village

13th April - Wendlebury Mead VC23

O1. Taraxacum anglicum / palustre

SP564 176 Frequent in more marshy spots - Broad bordered for anglicum / narrow for palustre - will need to check these a little more next year

O2. Taraxacum anglicum

SP564 176 Frequent – a good year

03. Taraxacum subundulatum

SP564 176 Frequent

04. Taraxacum fulgidum

SP5649 1763 1-2 lateral lobes. Greyish green. Blotched interlobes. Ligule tips/teeth dusky. Winged petioles.

05. Taraxacum excellens

SP5649 1763 Mid green, 5 lateral lobes, some doubling. Bud bracts slightly cupped

O7. Taraxacum tamesense

Dark green, blotched interlobes (forward curved)

10. Taraxacum akteum

SP5654 1766 Pollen present, long greenish petioles, 2-4 long triangular lateral lobes

17th April - Ambrosden

O1. Taraxacum ancistrolobum

SP6074 1842

Lower Arncott


O2. Taraxacum diastematicum

SP6087 1866

Arncott Mead SSSI

Species rich grassland

All purple petioles very narrowly green winged

Distant humped lateral lobes and rounded subdivisions to terminal lobes.

This is mead habitat (near the edge) and everything is a little small.

O3. Taraxacum pannucium

SP6061 1914

Rough unmown edge of town grass

O4. Taraxacum speciosiflorum

SP6059 1921

Rough unmown edge of town grass


I found this last year and noticed it had no pollen but it had gone a bit gross and put it down to environmental reasons.

But it really does seem to lack pollen

It fits well with speciosiflorum other than the petioles are only slightly pink (mainly whitish) with some petioles that dull brownish colour. Homophyllous leaves

The flower heads are very ‘pom-pom’ probably due to short broad bracts

Capitula about 6cm diameter. Other adjacent plants (lots of gross stuff looking like altissum/severum ) had plentiful pollen

O6. Taraxacum subundulatum

SP6072 1867

Country lane adjacent to mead

Numerous along the lane side. Wanted to get some shots of non-mead plants

19th April - Pixey Mead VC23

O1. Taraxacum bracteatum

SP4835 0943

Erect bracts green/purple, purple midrib

O2. Taraxacum anglicum

SP484 097

Very numerous especially in damper areas – a good year and a great location for it

O3. Taraxacum fulgidum

SP4841 0971

I call think of this as the greyer – longer terminal lobe form – probably older leaves. Younger plants and some at other meadows (oxford parks) more round terminal lobes.

O4. Taraxacum haematicum

SP4851 0986

Intense purple pink petioles with spreading bracts. Distant lateral lobes with some sub-division

O5. Taraxacum fulgidum

SP485 1000

Blotched interlobes and rounded terminal lobes

O6. Taraxacum fulgidum

SP485 1000

More of the same. Blotched interlobes and rounded terminal lobes

07. Taraxacum akteum

SP4833 0990

O8. Taraxacum fulgidum

SP485 100

More fulgidum with very bright ligule stripes

O9. Taraxacum amplum

SP4855 0990

No Hamata have a bit sagittate end-lobe like that

Section Taraxacum with bordered bracts - toothed proximal edged to lateral lobes

26th April - Ambrosden

O7. Taraxacum cordatum

SP6065 1864

Country lane adjacent to mead

Pretty - white outer, pink inner Ekmania.

O8. Taraxacum sublaeticolor

SP6072 1864

Country lane adjacent to mead

Alata group. Sigmoid oblong bracts, green petioles with narrow wings. Large inner terminal lobe with a subdivision

O9. Taraxacum necessarium

SP6089 1875

Country lane adjacent to mead

Not sure on this stunning looking dandelion green/white long petioles, 5 entire lateral lobes short and recurved. Elegant long narrow bracts. It has sooty ligule teeth.

2nd May - Shipton-on-Cherwell

O1. Taraxacum ochrochlorum

Very small for a large species

SP4809 1652

Grazed flood meadow

This looks sheathed at the base so thinking gp trilobata ochrochlorum with these reflexed lobes

O2. Taraxacum ?

SP4809 1652

Grazed flood meadow

If green petioles then croceiflorum

O3. Taraxacum valens

petioles too pale and end lobe wrong for stenoglossum

SP4810 1652

Grazed flood meadow

Narrow unwinged purple petioles with large terminal lobe.

O5. Taraxacum aequisectum

winged and +/- lobed to base

SP4809 1651

Grazed flood meadow

Long spreading reflexed lobes with large sub-divided terminal lobe

O7. Taraxacum alatum

SP4812 1659

Grazed flood meadow

Long narrow winged petioles and narrow leaves

O8. Taraxacum sublaeticolor

SP4817 1662

Grazed flood meadow

Not really too sure what this is. Lots of it and very purple bracts.

O9. Taraxacum lacerifolium

Not clear

SP4834 1662

Grazed flood meadow

Big teeth in inter-lobes

10. Taraxacum incisum

SP4845 1671

Grazed flood meadow

11. Taraxacum pannucium

SP4845 1671

Tow path

12. Taraxacum atactum

SP4843 1676

Tow path

13. Taraxacum obliquilobum


SP4843 1676

Tow path

Group Ekmania - bracts are spreading, quite narrow and unbordered

14. Taraxacum sublaeticolor

SP4837 1678

Bridge wall

Thinking this again - green petioles, neat leaves and sooty tips to outer ligules

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Aug 11, 2023

Hello, I new to identifying dandelions. I never knew there were so many! Please can you tell me, what is the difference between Taraxacum officinale and all the other species? Also how come, when I look through all the other species, I never see officinale? Thank you :)

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